如何在CentOS7 上安裝 laravel 5

在Codeigniter 上開發了也快一年,前陣子被推坑來laravel,一試完果真回不去了,簡便的指令模式能快速地建立Controller、Model、View 及各種樣板,當下果斷放棄Codeigniter。

在這框架奔放的年代,Laravel 絕對是PHP後端框架最重要的角色沒有之一。

設定 Yum Repositories

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$ sudo yum install epel-release -y
$ sudo rpm -Uvh https://mirror.webtatic.com/yum/el7/webtatic-release.rpm

webtatic 的倉庫是為了輔助安裝php7 以上的版本。

安裝套件

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$ sudo yum install php71w php71w-opcache php71w-fpm php71w-mbstring php71w-dom php71w-pdo php71w-m php71w-mysql php71w-cli php71w-mcrypt httpd mariadb-server

檢查php 指令

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$ php -v
PHP 7.1.0 (cli) (built: Dec 3 2016 11:17:43) ( NTS )
Copyright (c) 1997-2016 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v3.1.0-dev, Copyright (c) 1998-2016 Zend Technologies
with Zend OPcache v7.1.0, Copyright (c) 1999-2016, by Zend Technologies

如果能看到上方訊息的話,表示php 已經安裝成功。

啟動相關服務

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$ sudo systemctl enable httpd
$ sudo systemctl start httpd
$ sudo systemctl enable mysqld
$ sudo systemctl start mysqld

分別讓 資料庫 及 網頁伺服器 在開機後自動啟動。

修改防火牆

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$ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-port=80/tcp
$ sudo firewall-cmd --reload

CentOS 預設不允許外部連線,所以先手動打開一個port 給外部IP使用,若您的httpd 是listen 其他port 的話,在更改 –add-port=80/tcp 這部分就可以了。

安裝 composer

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$ curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | php
$ sudo mv composer.phar /usr/bin/composer

composer 是php 的套件管理程式,laravel 便是透過composer 來安裝。

安裝 laravel

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$ pwd
/home/sjzeng
$ composer global require "laravel/installer"

設定環境變數

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$ vi ~/.bash_profile
add: `:$HOME/.config/composer/vendor/bin` to $path parameter
$ source ~/.bash_profile

雖然laravel 安裝好了,但當你執行 laravel 這指令時會顯示bash: laravel: command not found,這是因為還沒告訴作業系統要去哪邊執行laravel。

安裝網站

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$ pwd
/home/sjzeng
$ laravel new blog
$ sudo chmod +x /home/sjzeng

您可以將網頁目錄安裝在任意地方。這邊有一個坑,作為網站目錄的資料夾,其所屬的所有上層資料夾都必須有執行 的權限,例如筆者選用 /home/sjzeng/blog 作為網站目錄,則

  • /home/sjzeng/blog
  • /hom/sjzeng/
  • /home/
  • /

    上方這四個資料夾都必須有 x 的權限。

更改httpd 設定

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$ sudo vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
#### change to below config ####
DocumentRoot "/home/sjzeng/blog/public"
<Directory "/home/sjzeng/blog/public">
 AllowOverride All
</Directory>
#### change to above config ####
$ sudo systemctl restart httpd

預設的 DocumentRoot 是 /var/www/html,需更改成您安裝網頁的路徑,
在httpd 讀取資料夾的地方 <Directory> 也必須更改成網頁的路徑,如果您在 <Directory> 內有其他設定的話,僅需變更 AllowOverride All 這行即可,其餘不需更改。AllowOverride 是讓httpd 讀取 .htaccess的設定。

更改 SELinux 設定

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$ pwd
/home/sjzeng
$ chcon -Rv -t httpd_sys_content_t blog/

CentOS 對內部檔案的權限管理非常嚴謹,當其他使用者在看網頁時,CentOS 內其實是有一名叫做 apache 的使用者在瀏覽您的網頁目錄,雖然如此但 apache 也不是什麼檔案都能看,僅能觀看httpd 相關權限的檔案而已,在還沒修改網站權限時你可以透過 ls -Z 來取得目前的權限。

修改前:

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$ ls -Z
drwxrwxr-x. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 app
-rw-rw-r--. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 artisan
drwxrwxr-x. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 bootstrap
-rw-rw-r--. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 composer.json
-rw-rw-r--. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 composer.lock
drwxrwxr-x. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 config
drwxrwxr-x. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 database
-rw-rw-r--. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 gulpfile.js
-rw-rw-r--. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 package.json
-rw-rw-r--. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 phpunit.xml
drwxrwxr-x. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 public
-rw-rw-r--. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 readme.md
drwxrwxr-x. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 resources
drwxrwxr-x. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 routes
-rw-rw-r--. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 server.php
drwxrwxr-x. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 storage
drwxrwxr-x. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 tests
drwxrwxr-x. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 vendor
-rw-rw-r--. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 yarn.lock

修改後:

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drwxrwxr-x. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 app
-rw-rw-r--. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 artisan
drwxrwxr-x. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 bootstrap
-rw-rw-r--. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 composer.json
-rw-rw-r--. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 composer.lock
drwxrwxr-x. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 config
drwxrwxr-x. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 database
-rw-rw-r--. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 gulpfile.js
-rw-rw-r--. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 package.json
-rw-rw-r--. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 phpunit.xml
drwxrwxr-x. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 public
-rw-rw-r--. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 readme.md
drwxrwxr-x. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 resources
drwxrwxr-x. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 routes
-rw-rw-r--. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 server.php
drwxrwxrwx. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_rw_content_t:s0 storage
drwxrwxr-x. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 tests
drwxrwxr-x. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 vendor
-rw-rw-r--. sjzeng sjzeng unconfined_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 yarn.lock

但是 httpd_sys_content_t 僅是瀏覽的權限而已,依據 laravel 的安裝說明bootstrap/cachestorage 這兩個資料夾必須要有寫入的權限,所以需再做以下修改:

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$ chcon -Rv -t httpd_sys_rw_content_t blog/storage
$ chcon -Rv -t httpd_sys_rw_content_t blog/bootstrap/cache
$ sudo chmod -R 777 blog/storage
$ sudo chmod -R 777 blog/bootstrap/cache

當然如果你不想這麼麻煩的話也可以把SELinux 的檢查關掉,不過非常不建議這招:

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$ sudo setenforce 0
$ sudo chmod -R 777 blog/storage
$ sudo chmod -R 777 blog/bootstrap/cache

安裝到這邊就大功告成啦,快打開您的瀏覽器輸入IP 試看看吧。